National Health Law Research Institute’s


Approved by AICTE, Recognized by Govt. of Maharashtra, DTE & Affiliated to MSBTE Landgewadi-Kavate mahankal Road, Landgewadi Kavathemahankal, Dist- Sangli-416405 E-mail:, Website:, Contact No: (02341) 222737

Client Says
“The course has been good, I have enjoyed because of the way the modules are scheduled. There is a lot of flexibility, so you can do other things. I really enjoyed it. Particularly the writing and the theory aspects, when I came here at Sangli, every thing was new to me but as the time goes on , I am now enjoying my studies.”
Pramod Shelke.

Pharmaceutics is the discipline of pharmacy that deals with the process of turning a new chemical entity (NCE) or old drugs into a medication to be used safely and effectively by patients. It is also called the science of dosage form design. There are many chemicals with pharmacological properties, but need special measures to help them achieve therapeutically relevant amounts at their sites of action. Pharmaceutics helps relate the formulation of drugs to their delivery and disposition in the body.[1] Pharmaceutics deals with the formulation of a pure drug substance into a dosage form. Branches of pharmaceutics include:

  • Pharmaceutical formulation
  • Pharmaceutical manufacturing
  • Dispensing pharmacy
  • Pharmaceutical technology
  • Physical pharmacy
  • Pharmaceutical jurisprudence

Pure drug substances are usually white crystalline or amorphous powders. Historically before the advent of medicine as a science it was common for pharmacists to dispense drugs as is, most drugs today are administered as parts of a dosage form. The clinical performance of drugs depends on their form of presentation to the patient.Modern Pharmaceutics, Volume 121. Gilbert S. Banker, Christopher T. Rhodes

Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).

Compounds used as medicines are most often organic compounds, which are often divided into the broad classes of small organic molecules (e.g., atorvastatin, fluticasone, clopidogrel) and "biologics" (infliximab, erythropoietin, insulin glargine), the latter of which are most often medicinal preparations of proteins (natural and recombinant antibodies, hormones, etc.). Inorganic and organometallic compounds are also useful as drugs (e.g., lithium and platinum-based agents such as lithium carbonate and cis-platin).

In particular, medicinal chemistry in its most common practice —focusing on small organic molecules—encompasses synthetic organic chemistry and aspects of natural products and computational chemistry in close combination with chemical biology, enzymology and structural biology, together aiming at the discovery and development of new therapeutic agents. Practically speaking, it involves chemical aspects of identification, and then systematic, thorough synthetic alteration of new chemical entities to make them suitable for therapeutic use. It includes synthetic and computational aspects of the study of existing drugs and agents in development in relation to their bioactivities (biological activities and properties), i.e., understanding their structure-activity relationships (SAR). Pharmaceutical chemistry is focused on quality aspects of medicines and aims to assure fitness for purpose of medicinal products.[citation needed]

At the biological interface, medicinal chemistry combines to form a set of highly interdisciplinary sciences, setting its organic, physical, and computational emphases alongside biological areas such as biochemistry, molecular biology, pharmacognosy and pharmacology, toxicology and veterinary and human medicine; these, with project management, statistics, and pharmaceutical business practices, systematically oversee altering identified chemical agents such that after pharmaceutical formulation, they are safe and efficacious, and therefore suitable for use in treatment of disease.

The word "pharmacognosy" is derived from two Greek words φάρμακον pharmakon (drug), and γνῶσις gnosis (knowledge). The term "pharmacognosy" was used for the first time by the Austrian physician Schmidt in 1811 and 1815 by Crr. Anotheus Seydler in a work titled Analecta Pharmacognostica.

Originally—during the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century—"pharmacognosy" was used to define the branch of medicine or commodity sciences (Warenkunde in German) which deals with drugs in their crude, or unprepared, form. Crude drugs are the dried, unprepared material of plant, animal or mineral origin, used for medicine. The study of these materials under the name pharmakognosie was first developed in German-speaking areas of Europe, while other language areas often used the older term materia medica taken from the works of Galen and Dioscorides. In German the term drogenkunde ("science of crude drugs") is also used synonymously.

As late as the beginning of the 20th century, the subject had developed mainly on the botanical side, being particularly concerned with the description and identification of drugs both in their whole state and in powder form. Such branches of pharmacognosy are still of fundamental importance, particularly for pharmacopoeial identification and quality control purposes, but rapid development in other areas has enormously expanded the subject. The advent of the 21st century brought a renaissance of pharmacognosy and its conventional botanical approach has been broadened up to molecular and metabolomic level.

Although most pharmacognostic studies focus on plants and medicines derived from plants, other types of organisms are also regarded as pharmacognostically interesting, in particular, various types of microbes (bacteria, fungi, etc.), and, recently, various marine organisms.

In addition to the previously mentioned definition, the American Society of Pharmacognosy also defines pharmacognosy as "the study of natural product molecules (typically secondary metabolites) that are useful for their medicinal, ecological, gustatory, or other functional properties." Other definitions are more encompassing, drawing on a broad spectrum of biological subjects, including botany, ethnobotany, marine biology, microbiology, herbal medicine, chemistry, biotechnology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmaceutics, clinical pharmacy and pharmacy practice.

  • medical ethnobotany: the study of the traditional use of plants for medicinal purposes;
  • ethnopharmacology: the study of the pharmacological qualities of traditional medicinal substances;
  • the study of phytotherapy (the medicinal use of plant extracts); and
  • phytochemistry, the study of chemicals derived from plants (including the identification of new drug candidates derived from plant sources).
  • zoopharmacognosy, the process by which animals self-medicate, by selecting and using plants, soils, and insects to treat and prevent disease.
  • marine pharmacognosy, the study of chemicals derived from marine organisms.

At the 9th congress of Italian society of pharmacognosy it was stated that current return of phyto-therapy was clearly reflected by the increased market of such products. In 1998 the latest figures available for Europe, the total OTC market for herbal medicinal products reached a figure of $6 billion, with consumption for Germany of $2.5 billion, France $1.6 billion and Italy $600 million. In the US, where the use of herbal products has never been as prevalent as in continental Europe, the market for all herb sales reached a peak in 1998 of $700 billion.[citation needed] This welcomed the scientific investigation of a rigorous nature.

The plant kingdom still holds many species of plants containing substances of medicinal value which have yet to be discovered. Large numbers of plants are constantly being screened for their possible pharmacological value.

This course is in great demand today in view of exponential growth in the past few years in various telecommunications related technologies. The department comprises of four well-equipped laboratories containing latest equipment and training kits in the field of Electronic & Telecommunication in order to conduct practical experiments as stipulated by the University syllabus. The department has a state-of-art computer laboratory which has computers loaded with the latest application software to cater the need of DSP Advanced communication technologies etc. The Department has adequate no. of post graduate and other professionally experienced faculties to meet the academic needs of the students. The total value of lab equipment and associated software amounts to approximately Rs.90 Lacs.